Reimagining the Purpose of Vocational Education and Training: Perspectives of Bhutanese TVET practitioners on online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic


Online teaching
Perception and Challenges
TVET in Bhutan

How to Cite

Tshewang, S., Sarki, P., & Wangmo, S. (2023). Reimagining the Purpose of Vocational Education and Training: Perspectives of Bhutanese TVET practitioners on online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Innovation in Polytechnic Education, 5, 61–77. Retrieved from


Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4, which emphasises inclusive and equitable quality education and promotes lifelong learning opportunities for all was achieved by online teaching even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, online education helped reduce the cost of education, making it more accessible to individuals who might not be able to afford traditional brick-and-mortar schools. So the study was conducted in the midst of online teaching during the pandemic to assess the perceptions of the TVET practitioners and the students.

The aim of this study was to conduct an online survey to learn more about how teachers and students perceived and experienced online classrooms. In response to the present pandemic situation, the general educational system also modified itself to include the delivery of classes via online means. Thus, this survey describes Technical Training Institute teachers’ and students’ perceptions and concerns with regard to taking online classes that have been made mandatory in the wake of COVID-19.

The sample consisted of 10 trainers and 119 trainees from Technical Training Institute Samthang in Wangdue Phodrang. An online survey method (google forms) was used for data collection. The findings show that little more than 27% believed online teaching is effective. It is also reported that the negative aspect of online teaching is attributed to the low level of knowledge transfer (38%), less structured than classroom teaching (53%), challenging to clarify doubt (53%), and teacher designing teaching learning materials were not interesting with 78%. Overwhelming, 76% of the participants believed that the technical issue majorly disrupts the flow and pace of online teaching.

Notably, most participants (69%) thought online education saved time. The study also brought up major challenges with the validity of the assessment system during online education.



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